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16th International Conference on Microbial Interactions & Microbial Ecology, will be organized around the theme “”

Microbial Interactions 2021 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Microbial Interactions 2021

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The inter and intra relationships between symbiosis  and antibiosis known as microbial interactions  In microbial interactions two species will interact in which each species derives a benefit. These reactions may occur intermittent, permanent or cyclic. Microbial interactions are diverse ubiquitous and very important in the function of any biological community. Pathogenesis are the disease causing agents like virus, bacteria, fungi.

The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This term is most commonly used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. Because of this, the definition has been expanded to how known pathogens survive within their host, whether they cause disease or not. On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear. Viruses can also infect the host with virulent DNA, which can affect normal cell processes (transcription, translation, etc.), protein folding, or evading the immune response.

Microbial ecology is the study of relationship between microbes and their surrounds, biased image of the role of microbes in nature obtained from laboratory studies of pure culture cultures data leads to inappropriate conclusions about their relevance. Eg. E. coli grows in animals intestinal tracts but merely survive in aquatic environments, E. coli are transients and not residents of aquifers from which they can be isolated. Microbial ecology studies entail the use of conventional microbiological techniques (cultural / enumeration procedures, EM, radioactive tracer methods) and modern molecular techniques (gene analysis, nuclei acid probes, sequencing) .

Soil-plant-microbe interactions along with organic manure in solving stressed agriculture problems. Beneficial microbes associated with plants are known to stimulate plant growth and enhance plant resistance to biotic (diseases) and abiotic (salinity, drought, pollutions, etc.) stresses. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizae, a key component of soil microbiota, could play vital roles in the maintenance of plant fitness and soil health under stressed environments.

Microbial ecology is the study of relationship between microbes and their surrounds, biased image of the role of microbes in nature obtained from laboratory studies of pure culture cultures data leads to inappropriate conclusions about their relevance. Eg. E. coli grows in animals intestinal tracts but merely survive in aquatic environments, E. coli are transients and not residents of aquifers from which they can be isolated. Microbial ecology studies entail the use of conventional microbiological techniques (cultural / enumeration procedures, EM, radioactive tracer methods) and modern molecular techniques (gene analysis, nuclei acid probes, sequencing).

The activities of complex communities of microbes affect biogeochemical transformations in natural, managed and engineered ecosystems. Meaningfully defining what constitutes a community of interacting microbial populations is not trivial, but is important for rigorous progress in the field. Important elements of research in microbial community ecology include the analysis of functional pathways for nutrient resource and energy flows, mechanistic understanding of interactions between microbial populations and their environment, and the emergent properties of the complex community.

A microorganism may be a microbe that has the potential to cause sickness. To cause an infection, microbes should enter our bodies. Microbes will enter the body through the four sites listed below: Respiratory tract (mouth and nose) e.g. respiratory  disease virus that causes the contagious disease.     Gastrointestinal tract (mouth oral cavity) e.g. eubacteria epidemic cholera that causes cholera. Urogenital tract e.g. Escherichia  that causes    urinary tract infection. Breaks within the skin surface e.g. eubacteria tetani that causes tetanus.

The occurrence of infectious disease is affected by interaction between microorganisms in three ways. The indigenous flora (commensal microorganisms) of some mucous surfaces provides one of the main protective mechanisms against infection by pathogens (disease-producing microbes). The commensal populations interfere with the establishment of pathogens on mucous membranes by evoking anaerobic conditions, by competing for space and nutrients and by producing inhibitors. How, at the beginning of successful infection, pathogens in relatively small numbers overcome this protective activity of the commensal population is unknown.

Applied and Environmental Science (AES) is well-covered in the program of Microbiology 2021. The most exciting findings in this field in the last few years will be presented including recent, game-changing discoveries of microbial players and physiologies in the major Biogeochemical Cycles, Microbial Interactions, Electro microbiology and Synthetic microbiology.

The track is organized into three thematic sessions: Soil MicrobiologyWater Microbiology, and Environmental Biotechnology. The first sessions includes researches on soil as a habitat for microorganisms, and introduces the main types of soil microorganisms, how they interact with the soil, and the techniques used in their analysis. Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties. It is believed that between two and four billion years ago, the first ancient bacteria and microorganisms came about in Earth's oceans. In the second section includes Freshwater, Wastewater, and Drinking Water Microbiology and assays of microbial pathogens-bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites which are used in food and water quality control as well as an exercise in applied bioremediation of contaminants in water.

The focus is the host cell responses elicited by the interaction of micro-organisms. Equal emphasis is placed on responses to prokaryotic, viral and eukaryotic micro-organisms. In addition to mammalian systems, papers addressing other hosts such as plants and insects are strongly encouraged. Systems biology is a rapidly expanding discipline fuelled by the 'omics era and new technological advances that have increased the precision of data obtainable.

Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance (AAR) will cover a range of important topics. One of the major challenges today is the rising tide of antimicrobial resistance, with the emergence of "untreatable" microbes causing diseases that were once readily treatable. The AAR track is the best place to find information regarding new antimicrobial agent discovery, preclinical investigations of new antimicrobial drugs in the pipeline, and first-look data of human clinical trials using new antimicrobial agents. 

This track focuses on the Spectrum of Fungi that infects Humans. In previously healthy individuals, invasive fungal disease is rare because animals’ sophisticated immune systems evolved in constant response to fungal challenges. In contrast, fungal diseases occur frequently in immunocompromised patients. Paradoxically, successes of modern medicine have put increasing numbers of patients at risk for invasive fungal infections.

Clinical and Public Health Microbiology (CPHM) has always been well-represented at Microbiology Conferences.Thorough coverage of the science of antibiotic susceptibility testing: new protocols, new drug panels, new drugs in the pipeline, and new organisms to test are among the most important part of the track. Sessions in this track will also deep dive into testing and treatment of all clinically important microbe with growing incidence.

Exciting developments in Food Microbiology has been the availability and application of molecular analyses that have allowed scientists to address microbial food safety questions beyond merely determining whether particular pathogens are in a food. Such global analyses are allowing scientists to ask deeper questions regarding food-borne pathogens and are currently leading the way to ascertaining the genes, proteins, networks, and cellular mechanisms that determine the persistence of strains in foods and other environments, determine why certain strains are more commonly isolated from foods, and determine why certain strains are more pathogenic. Such molecular tools are also making it possible to more fully determine the microflora present in foods along with pathogens, and to assess the effect that the food microbiota has on the death, survival, and pathogenicity of food borne pathogens.

The focus is the host cell responses elicited by the interaction of micro-organisms. Equal emphasis is placed on responses to prokaryotic, viral and eukaryotic micro-organisms. In addition to mammalian systems, papers addressing other hosts such as plants and insects are strongly encouraged. Systems biology is a rapidly expanding discipline fuelled by the 'omics era and new technological advances that have increased the precision of data obtainable.

We are in the era of speed and precision. Like many other disciplines in environmental biologyaquatic microbiology tends to move forward with new rapid and cutting edge tools to study water-related microorganisms from river banks to the abyss of the oceans. These innovations help to resolve the issues with determining the risks associated with climate change, human activities as well as the interactions between species to redefine what a healthy water environment is for all living organisms sharing these environments

Microorganisms and viruses can also interact with host cells to induce alterations in cellular phenotype and function in order to subvert host cell metabolism to meet their own needs. Some microbes and viruses exert effects on the host immune response in order to evade host immune control. Understanding the interplay between infectious pathogens and their host cells is important in order to identify potential new targets for drug therapy.

Soil-plant-microbe interactions along with organic manure in solving stressed agriculture problems. Beneficial microbes associated with plants are known to stimulate plant growth and enhance plant resistance to biotic (diseases) and abiotic (salinity, drought, pollutions, etc.) stresses. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizae, a key component of soil microbiota, could play vital roles in the maintenance of plant fitness and soil health under stressed environments.

Molecular microbiology is a rapidly expanding area of contemporary science: the application of molecular biology has opened up the microbial world in many remarkable ways. The attraction of microbes is that they are self-contained and that they offer complete solutions to understanding the phenomenon of life.