Day 1 :
Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Keynote: Clostridium-enriched enterotype contribute to bile acid oversynthesis in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome
Time : 10:00 AM - 10.40 AM
Prof Bian Zhaoxiang had been educated in Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Beijing University of TCM and Guangzhou University ofTCM; and was conferred the Ph.D. degree in Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine in 1994. Currently, he is the Associate Vice-President, Chair Professor of School of Chinese Medicine, Director of Clinical Division and Associate Director of Institute of Creativity of Hong Kong Baptist University. He is also the Honorary Professor of the Shanghai University of TCM, and the Chinese Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, China. Prof. Bian's research focuses mainly on the relationship between psychological stress and digestive diseases, especially on colorectal cancer irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBO) and related new drug discovery and clinical trial design, implementation and reporting with Chinese Medicine
Bile acid (BA) overexcretion, strongly linking with the severity of bowel symptoms, affects a considerable population of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), Some genetic and metabolic mechanisms derived from the host have been documented, however the role of gut microbiota has received little attention. To investigate gutmicrobiota and its effect on BA metabolism in IBS-D, a series of metabolic and microbial experiments were performed from bedside to bench. Fecal metagenomic analysis identified a specific enterotype characterized by enrichment of Clostridium in IBS-D cases with BA overexcretion. Abundant Clostridium species showed positive association with human fecal total BA and serum C4 levels, but reversely correlated with serum FGF19. Further, mouse experiments with bacterial manipulation found that enrichment of Clostridium species in the cecal lumens leads to elevation of fecal total BA level and taurine-conjugated BA contents in the liver and ileal contents, along with differential expressions ofhepatic BA synthetase CYP7A1 and ileal feedback regulator FGF15. Mechanistic analyses revealed such microbiotadriven BA synthetic dysregulation is involved in inhibition of FXR-mediated feedback signaling. This study discloses the potential contribution of Clostridium-enriched enterotype in BA overexcretion in IBS-D and also suggest the importance of enterotype classification in pathogenesis and diagnosis for IBS.
Kuwait University, Kuwait
Keynote: Identification and characterization of Cyanophages in kuwaiti seawater using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and nanoscopy
Time : 10:00 AM - 10.40 AM
Narjes H Dashti works as an Associate Professor of Microbiology in the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science at Kuwait University. She has completed her Bachelor’s degree in Soil Microbiology at Kuwait University. Afterwards, she took her Master’s degree in the same field at Oregon State University, USA followed by a PhD at McGill University, Canada. Her research interests include plant pathology, virology, soil microbiology, microbial bioremediation and hydrocarbon degradation. She has over 21 publications, 2 chapters Chapter Titled" PGPR to Alleviate the stress of Suboptimal Root Zone Temperature on Leguminous Plant Growth", in the book “Use of Microbes for the Alleviation of Soil Stress”, volume 1, 2013, Springer, Chapter Titled" Soybean production and suboptimal root zone temperatures" in the book “Environmental Stresses in Soybean Production” 2015 Elsevier, academic press, volume 1. She has presented many of her finding in both national and international conferences
Viruses in general and bacteriophages infecting cyanobacteria (cyanophages) in particular, are abundant in the marine environment and are of major ecological significance. Marine phytoplankton’s are photosynthetic free floating organisms that are major contributor to primary productivity in marine environment as a part of the balance of the marine ecosystem. Many phytoplankton’s can cause occasional blooms (such as red tides caused by dinoflagellates) that might be of harmful effects on the environment, and even have economic effects on fisheries and the fish industry. Such red tides, that kill fish in a huge number, have been reoccurring in Kuwaiti seawater in the past decade and it might be seen again in the future. Viruses are considered to be a major controlling factor for phytoplankton populations and blooming. This cyanophages were successfully detected and phage DNA molecules were isolated by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology in as little as 1 ul of Kuwaiti seawater directly. Specific primers were used in PCR mix, and 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to visualize the amplified phage DNA bands. Nanoscopy was used to detect and study the structure of the isolated phages and it was identified to be a virulent strain of phage, with T4 being the type species of the family of contractile tailed ds DNA phages composing the family Myoviridae
- Microbial Ecology | Microbial Interactions | Host-pathogen interaction | Soil microbiology | Microbiology & Infectious Diseases | Plant-Soil Microbe Interactions|Bioremediation & Biodegradation | Microbiome in IBS | Biotechnology | Advanced Research in Microbiology and Public health | Advanced Research in Microbiology and Public Health | Biotechnology
Location: Vienna, Austria
Narjes H Dashti
Kuwait University, Kuwait
University of Foggia, Italy
Elisa Spinelli is a Veterinarian with a Postgraduate qualification in Food safety, Certification and Food Risk Communication. She is a PhD student at University of Foggia (Italy) where she is working on the main topic of antimicrobial resistant bacteria from a food safety perspective, focusing on the detection and prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in new ecological niches. She has worked over the last six months as a Visiting PhD student at The Research Institute of Food Science (CIAL-CSIC), Madrid (Spain) on the fate of MRSA along the human gastrointestinal tract and its interaction with gut microbiota.
Statement of the Problem: Intestinal mucus layer may provide a niche for many nosocomial pathogens, including S. aureus which can occasionally cause a Staphylococcal enterocolitis. Recent exciting researches support the notion that a healthy intestinal microbiota composition can promote resistance to invading pathogenic bacterial species.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of MRSA in simulated human ascendant colon conditions and its interaction with gut microbiota into the mucus layer.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The study was performed at ascendant colon environment: body-like temperature (37°C), anaerobiosis (N2), pH 5.7, constant slow shaking (40 RPM). Mucin agar carriers stand for the intestinal mucus layer and a basic feed medium represented the intestinal lumen contents. A three-days long in vitro study was performed by using microbiota from pooled faeces of healthy individuals that were stabilized simulating ascendant colon conditions and a MRSA strain of animal origin (ST398-t011-SCCmecV; 107 UFC/mL). Each day we checked the viability of MRSA both into the mucin agar carriers and in the feed medium by using MRSA-SELECT® plates (BioRad). The results were confirmed by quantitative PCR.
Findings: MRSA population decreased as a function of time during the incubation with luminal colon microbiota where it was not viable after 24 h. Counts of 4 log cfu/g were still obtained in the mucin agar carriers after 72 h of incubation. On the other hand, counts of Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia increased in the mucin agar carriers as a function of time.
Conclusion & Significance: The results support the hypothesis that a competitive microbiota may control MRSA intestinal colonization empathize the important role of specific groups which can inhibit the adhesion of/displace MRSA from the intestinal mucus layer.
Hashemite University, Jordan
Hafez Al-momani is an Assistance Professor of Microbiology at Hashemite University in Zarqa, Jordan. He obtained his undergraduate degree in Medicine from Jordan University of Science and Technology in 2006. He has received his MRes and PhD in Medical Sciences at Institute of Cell and Molecular Bioscience (ICaMB)/Newcastle University and Freeman Hospital Microbiology department/Newcastle, UK in 2017 under the supervision of the Professor Jeffery Pearson and Dr. Ward. His research interests include microbiology of cystic fibroses patient, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-tuberculous mycobacterium and the interaction between these pathogens and the gastric environment. His future plan to set up experimental studies on the effect of different gastric juice component on different microorganism related to cystic fibrosis patient
Introduction: The importance of researching gastrointestinal pathophysiology, lung infection and non-tuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) are universally recognised by carers, healthcare professionals and people with CF. We studied the aerodigestive microbiome in CF, providing the first longitudinal data of which we are aware.
Methods: Bacterial communities were collected from sputum and gastric juices from thirteen CF patients who were fed with a PEG tube; these samples were cultured then identified using the 6S rRNA gene sequencing technique. Symptoms of extraoesophageal reflux were recorded and after six months, further samples were collected. Models simulating gastric and lung environments were used to evaluate the effect of varying the levels of bile acids, pepsin and pH on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) isolated from patients.
Results: Identical strains of Pa and NTM were identified in gastric and lung samples from patients with symptoms of extraoesophageal reflux. Temporal repeated samples showed variability in overall bacterial diversity, which wasmore pronounced in sputa compared to gastric juice. Gastric bile and pepsin levels were associated with Pa biofilm formation.
Discussion: While identical microbiology in sputum and gastric juice can be accounted for by expectorate being swallowed, the aerodigestive microbiomes in patients who test negative for Pa and NTM in sputum, can test positive for these pathogens in the gastric compartment. This indicates the stomach can be a pathogenic reservoir. The route of transmission may be facilitated by reflux and potential aspiration of gastric juice. This gut to lung transfer of pathogenic organisms requires further research.
Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Italy
Francesca Brescia has obtained her Bachelor’s degree in Biology at the University of Torino in 2013. She decided to continue her studies at the University of Pavia, where in 2015 she obtained her Master’s degree in Experimental and Applied Biology and, in November 2015, she gained a nine-month research fellowship about the study of the fungal community associated to different Rubus species. In 2016, she started the doctoral course at the PhD school “Agricultural Science and Biotechnology” of the University of Udine at the Edmund Mach Foundation of San Michele all’Adige (TN) concerning the interactions between plantassociated bacteria and biocontrol agents in different nutrient conditions. From August 2018 to February 2019 she was a visiting PhD student at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria), where she carried out a part of her PhD project studying the compounds produced during microbial interactions.
Statement of the Problem: Bacterial biocontrol agents can improve plant heath with various mechanisms. The bacterial genus Lysobacter includes different species producing compounds and lytic enzymes active against phytopathogenic microorganisms and therefore can be a source of new biocontrol agents. In particular, L. capsici AZ78 (AZ78), isolated from tobacco rhizosphere, effectively controls the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), thanks to the production of antibiotics. Since bacterial communities might modulate the antibiotic production of biocontrol agents, the aim of this research was to understand if grapevine phyllosphere bacteria could affect the antibiotic production of AZ78. To test the hypothesis we used a simplified model system with a culturable phytopathogenic oomycete (Pythium ultimum).
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: 47 bacterial strains were isolated from leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot gris and Goldtraminer, identified by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis and their impact on AZ78’s inhibitory activity was assessed in vitro according to the experimental design described in Figure 1.
Findings: Most of the Gram-negative bacterial isolates were γ-Proteobacteria, while the Gram-positive isolates belonged to Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. None of the isolated strains showed an inhibitory activity against P. ultimum. Interestingly, most of them promoted AZ78 inhibitory activity. In particular Pseudomonas sp. L35 increased AZ78 inhibitory activity of the 29.6±0.95%, this can be related to a change in AZ78 gene expression triggered by the presence of the strain.
Conclusion & Significance: The interaction with the natural microbiota is an important factor to be considered in evaluating biocontrol agent’s efficacy, because their inhibitory activity can be affected by the microbiota itself. To gain a full picture, additional studies are necessary, taking into account the plant response, as well as considering the variation in AZ78 gene expression.
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Central University, India
Ram Chandra is currently a Professor in the Department of Microbiology at Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Central University, Lucknow, India. He hasinternational lead on degradation and detoxification of melanoidins of post methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) and chloro-lignin compounds of pulp and paper mill waste. He has published more than 120 original research papers in peer review journals, 06 books, 32 book chapters, and several technical reports. He has completed 25 major research projects. He is fellows of several scientific societies including Association of Microbiologists of India, The Biotech Research Society, India and The Academy of Environmental Biology, India. His research interests include bioremediation and biodegradation
Sugarcane-molasses-based distillery waste is well known for its toxicity and complex mixture of various recalcitrant organic pollutants, but the chemical nature of these pollutants is unknown. Distilleries release 12 to 15 liters of spent wash per liter of alcohol produced. Currently, there are more than 319 distilleries in India, reflecting the magnitude of the problem due to the presence of various complex pollutants in anaerobically digested distillery waste. This study revealed the presence of toxic organic acids (butanedioic acid bis(TMS)ester; 2-hydroxysocaproic acid; benzenepropanoic acid, and other recalcitrant organic pollutants (2-furancarboxylic acid, 5-[[(TMS)oxy] methyl], TMS ester; and tricarballylic acid 3TMS, dodecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, n-pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol trimethyl ether, heptacosane, dotriacontane, lanosta-8, 24-dien-3-one, 1-methylene-3-methyl butanol, 1-phenyl-1-propanol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) cycohexanol,and 2-ethylthio-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-1,4 anthraquinone which are listed as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition, several major heavy metals were detected, including Fe (163.947), Mn (4.556), Zn (2.487), and Ni (1.175mg l−1). Bacterial community analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed that Bacillus, Stenotrophomonas and Enterococcus were dominant autochthonous bacterial communities belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria. The presence of Bacillus Stenotrophomonas and Enterococcus species in highly toxic environments indicated its broad range adaptation. These findings indicated that these autochthonous bacterial communities were pioneer taxa for in situ remediation of this hazardous waste during ecological succession. Further, a toxicity evaluation showed a reduction of toxicity in degraded samples of distillery waste, confirming the role of autochthonous bacterial communities in the bioremediation of distillery waste in situ.
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
Dainius Paliulis is an assoc prof of Environmental protection in Vilnius Gediminas technical university. Scientists are implementing a project called: “Small-sizedbioreactor with three-phase system for biogas production and treatment research and development”. This research was funded by a grant (No. S-MIP-17-20) from the Research Council of Lithuania
Bioreactor-special device is used for biogas production from various organic materials under anaerobicconditions. In this research, a batch bioreactor with a mechanical mixer was used for biogas production fromsewage sludge and chicken manure bioloadings. The process of anaerobic digestion was mesophilic (35oC). Producedbiogas was stored in a gasholder and the concentration of its components was measured with INCA 4000 biogasanalyser. Also, a specific additive (pine wood biochar) was applied to prepare bioloadings. The application of woodbiochar in bioloading increases the CH4 concentration in the produced gas by 6-7%. The highest concentrations ofCH4 were found in biogas produced during the decomposition of sewage sludge bioloadings. The maximum CH4 reached 77.4%. Studies have shown that the application of biochar in bioloadingsalso reduces average CO2 and H2S concentrations in biogas.
Mmuoegbulam Augusta O is a Lecturer in the Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Nigeria. She did her PhD in Molecular Biology researchinternship in CPQBA, University of Campinas, Brazil under TETFund sponsorship. Her masters and PhD specializations were Medical Microbiology and Pathogenic Microbiology/Public Health respectively. Her research interests include pathogenic microbiology, public health, molecular biology, bacteriology, antibiotic resistance, infectious diseases, virology, immunology, genomics and cancer therapy
Crude oil exploration has led to the presence of pollutants in the marine environment. Among the biota presumably affected by environmental pollution are the microorganisms. It is speculated that oil pollution of the marine environment would create a preponderance of pathogenic and antibiotic resistant survivors which would constitute an enormous public health problem. Such pathogens that could be affected in the event are enterotoxigenic enterobacteria, which abound in Nigerian coastal waters and estuaries. Enterobacteria from Iko River in Nigeria were evaluated for enterotoxigenicity and phylogenetically classified using the 16S rRNA sequencing protocol. The sequence data generated from the PCR amplification and cycle sequencing reaction were matched with available sequences in the ribosomal data project (RDP). Isolates 12A, 13 and EC6 were identified as Klebsiella variicola F2R9T (AJ783916), isolate 11A as Enterobacter ludwigii EN-119T (AJ853891), and isolate 10 as Enterobacter asburiae JCM6051 (AB004744)/cancerogenus LMG 2693T (Z96078). Based on the ligated ileal loop assay, all the isolates were found to be enterotoxigenic with some histopathological effects. The plasmid profile of the isolates was also determined using the Promega protocols; and, with the exception of isolate 13, all the isolates harboured plasmids. Antibiogram showed that the isolates were susceptible to Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin and Clavulin; however, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) determination showed that Gentamycin and Ciprofloxacin were more effective than Clavulin. Evaluation of the relationship between crude oil exposure to presence of plasmid, antibiogram and enterotoxigenicity indicates that exposure to crude oil does not ameliorate or exacerbate antibiotic resistance, enterotoxigenicity and plasmid acquisition.
National Research Centre, Egypt
Mona El Shabrawy is the head of Microbiology and Immunology department, National Research Centre, Egypt. Her expertise is in conventional and molecular identification of bacteria especially Staphylococci. She supervised about 15 Master and PhD theses and shared in several projects. Also she is a member of organizing and scientific committee of three international conferences. Furthermore, she owns and manage EL-Mona laboratory series
Two hundred and twenty six samples were collected from human, dog, cat and poultry and examined for the existence of coagulase positive staphylococci. The conventional slide method identified 32 staphylococcal isolates as coagulase positive whereas this number was reduced by tube method to be 20 isolates. Based on Voges-Proskauer and Polymyxin B resistance tests, the isolates were differentiated into 16 S. aurues and two S. intermedius. The PCR amplification of thermonuclease and coagulase genes was conducted on S. aurues isolates, and then the coagulase positive products were put through restriction digestion using RFLP with AluI. Four distinct profiles (I, II, III &IV) were obtained. The coa gene was sequenced and exhibited a major genotype of S. aureus clone despite the different species origins supposing a common ancestor. The achieved data put this study in scene when proposed control strategies of staphylococcal infection as the issues in the regard.